Chemistry and creativity: General Chemistry The Essential Concepts by Raymond Chang
Raymond Chang was born in Hong Kong and grew up in Shanghai and Hong
Kong. He received his B.Sc. degree in chemistry from London University, England,
and his Ph.D. in chemistry from Yale University. After doing postdoctoral research at
Washington University and teaching for a year at Hunter College of the City University
of New York, he joined the chemistry department at Williams College, where he
has taught since 1968.
Professor Chang has served on the American Chemical Society Examination
Committee, the National Chemistry Olympiad Examination Committee, and the
Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) Committee. He is an editor of The Chemical
Educator. Professor Chang has written books on physical chemistry, industrial chemistry,
and physical science. He has also coauthored books on the Chinese language, children’s
picture books, and a novel for young readers.
For relaxation, Professor Chang maintains a forest garden; plays tennis, Ping-
Pong, and the harmonica; and practices the violin.
Jason Overby was born in Bowling Green, Kentucky, and grew up in Clarksville,
Tennessee. He received his B.S. in chemistry and political science from the University
of Tennessee at Martin and his Ph.D. in inorganic chemistry from Vanderbilt University.
After postdoctoral research at Dartmouth College, he began his academic career at
the College of Charleston in 1999.
Professor Overby maintains research interests in synthetic and computational
inorganic and organometallic chemistry. His educational pursuits include inorganic
chemistry laboratory pedagogy and the use of digital technology, including online
homework, as tools in the classroom.
In his spare time, Professor Overby enjoys cooking, computers, and spending
time with his family.
General Chemistry The Essential Concepts by Raymond Chang1 Introduction 1
2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions 29
3 Stoichiometry 60
4 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 97
5 Gases 136
6 Energy Relationships in Chemical Reactions 176
7 Th e Electronic Structure of Atoms 211
8 Th e Periodic Table 251
9 Chemical Bonding I: Th e Covalent Bond 285
10 Chemical Bonding II: Molecular Geometry and
Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals 320
11 Introduction to Organic Chemistry 363
12 Intermolecular Forces and Liquids and Solids 399
13 Physical Properties of Solutions 436
14 Chemical Kinetics 466
15 Chemical Equilibrium 510
16 Acids and Bases 544
17 Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria 590
18 Thermodynamics 628
19 Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry 661
20 The Chemistry of Coordination Compounds 703
21 Nuclear Chemistry 728
22 Organic Polymers—Synthetic and Natural 761
Appendix Units for the Gas Constant A-1
Appendix Selected Thermodynamic Data at 1 atm and 25°C A-2
Appendix Mathematical Operations A-6
Appendix The Elements and the Derivation of Th eir Names and